Hungary then controlled the territory to its old borders; regained control of industrial areas around Miskolc, Salgótarján, Selmecbánya, Kassa. - Sir Winston Churchill Watch the video now. Alcuni demografi, comunque, ritengono che il censimento del 1910 avesse sovrastimato la percentuale di magiari, argomentando con il fatto che ci sarebbero stati risultati differenti nei precedenti censimenti del regno e nei censimenti successivi. Trianon.jpg 1,121 × 806; 373 KB. A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948. The key success of fast development was specialisation of each region in fields that they were best. Europarl8 Europarl8 . Unterzeichnet am 4. Kun ordered the preparation of an offensive against Czechoslovakia, which would increase his domestic support by making good on his promise to restore Hungary's borders. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. El sustine ca premierul Vlad Filat nu avea mandatul necesar pentru a semna acest act. [80] It is also argued that there were different results in previous censuses in the Kingdom of Hungary and subsequent censuses in the new states. tratatul de la trianon Mihai Ghimpu, presedintele interimar al Republicii Moldova, a declarat ca tratatul privind regimul de frontiera semnat Romania si Moldova este ilegal si neconstitutional, informeaza Austria and Czechoslovakia subsidised the mill, sugar and brewing industries, while Hungary attempted to increase the efficiency of iron, steel, glass and chemical industries. Some predominantly Hungarian settlements, consisting of more than two million people, were situated in a typically 20–50 km (12–31 mi) wide strip along the new borders in foreign territory. [112] President Wilson initially supported the outline of a border that would have more respect to ethnic distribution of population based on the Coolidge Report, led by A. C. Coolidge, a Harvard professor, but later gave in, due to changing international politics and as a courtesy to other allies.[115]. or "Everything back!"). Minorities made up 8% of the total population in 1930 and 7% in 1941 (on the post-Trianon territory). One of the main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of "self-determination of peoples", and it was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. What happened to Austria in industry happened to Hungary in agriculture where production of grain declined by more than 70%. "The Trianon Peace Treaty in Hungarian Historiography and Political Thinking.". Slovenský náučný slovník, I. zväzok, Bratislava-Český Těšín, 1932. in Joseph Held, ed., Jeszenszky, Géza. The disseminating economic problems had been also noted in the Coolidge Report as a serious potential aftermath of the treaty. A. Basch, European Economic Nationalism (Washington, 1943); L. Pasvolsky, Economic Nationalism of the Danubian States (New York, 1929). Within the borders of "Hungary proper" numerous ethnic minorities were present: 16.1% Romanians, 10.5% Slovaks, 10.4% Germans, 2.5% Ruthenians, 2.5% Serbs and 8% others. Document 246. By the late 19th century, economic growth of the eastern regions consistently surpassed that of western, thus discrepancies eventually began to diminish. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I[1] and the Kingdom of Hungary. Item notes: pt. [19] Irredentism—that is the demand for reunification of Hungarian peoples became a central theme of Hungarian politics and diplomacy. The Treaty of Trianon (French: Traité de Trianon, Hungarian: Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and was signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on 4 June 1920. "Atat timp [..] Alte informatii despre: mihai ghimpu , tratat , regim de frontiera . "Peacebuilding in an Era of State-Nations: The Europe of Trianon. A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. [98][99][100] Areas with significant Hungarian populations included the Székely Land[101] in Eastern Transylvania, the area along the newly defined Romanian-Hungarian border (cities of Arad, Oradea), the area north of the newly defined Czechoslovakian–Hungarian border (Komárno, Csallóköz), southern parts of Subcarpathia and northern parts of Vojvodina. Another reason why the victorious Allies decided to dissolve the Central-European great power, Austria-Hungary, a strong German supporter and fast developing region, was to prevent Germany from acquiring substantial influence in the future. [40] On 21 March, he led a successful communist coup d'état; Károlyi was deposed and arrested. Le potenze vincitrici … "Trianon and the Predestination of Hungarian Politics: A Historiography of Hungarian Revisionism, 1918–1944." Trattato del Trianon translation in Italian-English dictionary. More concentrated groups were found in Czechoslovakia (parts of southern Slovakia), Yugoslavia (parts of northern Délvidék), and Romania (parts of Transylvania). Rispetto al Regno di Ungheria (già facente parte dell'Impero austro-ungarico), i confini dell'Ungheria uscita dalla guerra non comprendevano: I confini definitivi vennero delineati dal trattato del Trianon nel 1920. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: 1. The United States never formally joined the Allies. [92], After the treaty, the percentage and the absolute number of all Hungarian populations outside of Hungary decreased in the next decades (although, some of these populations also recorded temporary increase of the absolute population number). As a further illustration of this issue, post-Trianon Hungary produced 500% more agricultural goods than it needed for itself[126] and mills around Budapest (some of the largest ones in Europe at the time) operated at 20% level. ", Győri, Róbert, and Charles WJ Withers. The Romanian delegation to Versailles feared in 1919 that the Allies were beginning to favour the partition of Transylvania along ethnic lines to reduce the potential exodus[citation needed] and Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu even summoned British-born Queen Marie to France to strengthen their case. In caso contrario, il trattato di Trianon finirà per rappresentare per tutti noi un ricordo tutt'altro che positivo. Instead it negotiated a separate peace treaty with Hungary in 1921 that did not contradict the terms of the Trianon treaty.[55]. Un'ulteriore disposizione stabiliva che in Ungheria non potessero essere costruite ferrovie con più di un binario. [3] 1922. During the Sopron area plebiscite, the polling stations were supervised by army officers belonging to the Allied powers. The men of the Hungarian Red Army were recruited mainly from the volunteers of the Budapest proletariat. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. Peter Pastor, "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon.". Many Czechoslovak troops, in fact, started working for the Allied Cause, and in September 1918, five Czechoslovak Regiments were formed in the Italian Army. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. There, between 25–30 May, Romanian forces were required to defend their position against Hungarian attacks. After the war, the Austro-Hungarian navy, air force and army were disbanded. [125] This shows that the various parts of the former monarchy were economically interdependent. "Outline of Tentative Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Intelligence Section, in Accordance with Instructions, for the President and the Plenipotentiaries 21 January 1919. Adolf Hitler, applicando sino alle estreme conseguenze i principi nazionalisti, pianificò l'annessione alla Germania di tutti i territori fuori dai confini della madrepatria abitati da Tedeschi, e avviò a soluzione finale l'eliminazione degli Ebrei. Point ten announced Wilson's "wish" that the peoples of the Austria-Hungary be given autonomy—a point that Vienna rejected.[23]. Tratatul de la Trianon a fost semnat la data de 4 iunie 1920 între Puterile Aliate învingătoare în Primul Război Mondial și Ungaria, în calitate de stat succesor al Imperiului Austro-Ungar, stat învins în Primul Război Mondial. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 26 apr 2020 alle 21:56. To make the situation even more complex, in the multilingual kingdom there were territories with ethnically mixed populations where people spoke two or even three languages natively. Officially the treaty was intended to be a confirmation of the right of self-determination for nations and of the concept of nation-states replacing the old multinational Austro-Hungarian empire. After King Charles's withdrawal from government on 16 November 1918 made Károlyi proclaim the First Hungarian Republic, with himself as provisional president of the republic. Laurence Emerson Gelfand, The Inquiry; American Preparation for Peace, 1917–1919 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 332. Vertrag von Trianon . Ad es. Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s 'illiberal Hungary'." "Images of defeat: Hungary after the lost war, the revolutions and the Peace Treaty of Trianon. For example, the 1921 census in Czechoslovakia (only one year after the Treaty of Trianon) shows 21% Hungarians in Slovakia,[85] compared to 30% based on 1910 census. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: The territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja (which included most of the pre-war Hungarian counties of Baranya, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, and Temes) came under military control by the Kingdom of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. Representatives of small nations living in the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness[70] because a better future for their nations was "to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy, real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested with the authority of arbitration" while at the same time making a call for putting an end to "the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other" and making it possible "for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights and free conventions". Many roads and railways, running along the newly defined borders and interlinking radial transport lines, ended up in different, highly introvert countries. For example, in the territory what is today Slovakia (then part of Upper Hungary) 18% of the Slovaks, 33% of the Hungarians and 65% of the Germans were bilingual. Il trattato del Trianon fu il trattato di pace con cui le potenze vincitrici della prima guerra mondiale stabilirono le sorti del Regno d'Ungheria in seguito alla dissoluzione dell'Impero austro-ungarico. [12] The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest, and agitation for its revision began immediately. Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του "Trattato del Trianon" στα Ελληνικά. [123] (That level of growth compared very favourably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).) [63] During prior negotiations, the Hungarian party, along with the Austrian, advocated the American principle of self-determination: that the population of disputed territories should decide by free plebiscite to which country they wished to belong. Importance of Hungary. With regard to the ethnic issues, the Western powers were aware of the problem posed by the presence of so many Hungarians (and Germans) living outside the new nation-states of Hungary and Austria. [117] The perceived humiliation of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg musste Ungarn zwei Drittel seines früheren Staatsgebietes abgeben. Instead the Allies began a successful counteroffensive and forced the Armistice of 11 November 1918 that resembled a surrender by the Central Powers. [27] Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. [18] Two alliances faced off, the Central Powers (led by Germany) and the Triple Entente (led by Britain, France and Russia). On the request of the Austro-Hungarian Government, an armistice was granted to Austria-Hungary on 3 November 1918 by the Allies. Original from Indiana University [140], Articles 61–66 stated that all former citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary living outside the newly defined frontiers of Hungary were to ipso facto lose their Hungarian nationality in one year. [6] Though the areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries had a majority of non-Hungarians, in them lived 3.3 million Hungarians – 31% – who were now in a minority status. I. Svennilson, Growth and Stagnation in the European Economy (Geneva, 1954). Accordingly, the Allies assumed without question that the minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom wanted to leave Hungary. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, The Paris Peace Conference and its Consequences, Map of Hungarian borders in November–December 1918, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1922–1946), Treaties of the Hungarian People's Republic, Treaties of the Third Republic of Hungary,, Treaties of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946), Treaties of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), Treaties of the Portuguese First Republic, Treaties of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Treaties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 2,831,222 Romanians (53.8%). Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. Hungary also renounced all privileges in territories outside Europe that were administered by the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Post-Trianon Hungary possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the pre-war Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% of iron was retained. "The Impact of Trianon upon Hungary and the Hungarian Mind: The Nature of Interwar Hungarian Irredentism. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. Their views were disregarded by the Allied representatives. In the end, this particular invitation was not issued. [133], With the creation of customs barriers and fragmented protective economies, the economic growth and outlook in the region sharply declined,[134] ultimately culminating in a deep recession. Englische Übersetzung von Trattato del Trianon. Germany, the major ally of Austria-Hungary in World War I, suffered numerous losses during Hundred Days Offensive between August and November 1918 and was in negotiation of armistice with Allied Powers from beginning of October 1918. [citation needed] Other important factors were the Hungarian migration from the neighbouring states to Hungary or to some western countries as well as decreased birth rate of Hungarian populations. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public roads, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbours. The 1919 and 1920 Transylvanian censuses indicate a greater percentage of Romanians (57.1% / 57.3%). [104] Compared to the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, post-Trianon Hungary had 60% less population and its political and economic footprint in the region was significantly reduced. [26] He even organized covert contacts with British and French diplomats in Switzerland during the war. It settled a small border dispute between Austria and Hungary in 1921, that was later known as the Sopron plebiscite. A seguito del Trattato di Trianon, l'Ungheria perse i suoi territori più settentrionali. [16], On 28 June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state[citation needed] and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). The lack of specialisation adversely affected the whole Danube-Carpathian region and caused a distinct setback of growth and development compared to the West as well as high financial vulnerability and instability.[137][138]. Romanian forces were permitted to advance to the River Maros (Mureș). [65] According to some opinions, the Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers[66] with little or no regard to the historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region. Facts", "Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary", "Prague Congress of Oppressed nations, Details that Austrian censor suppressed – Text of revolutionary proclamation", "Browse Hungary's detailed ethnographic map made for the Treaty of Trianon online", "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995", The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us, Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, and Analysis, "The Czechoslovak government policy and population exchange (A csehszlovák kormánypolitika és a lakosságcsere)", "Official Letter from Tom Lantos to Robert Fico", "U.S. lawmaker blames Slovak government for ethnically motivated attacks on Hungarians", "Kosovo's Actions Hearten a Hungarian Enclave", Ethnic map of Kingdom of Hungary without Croatia-Slavonia, "NATO Seen Favorably Across Member States", 1914-1918-online. Published by Danubian Press, 1969 [121][136] The stated objective was that all countries should become self-sufficient. Many former Austro-Hungarian officers re-enlisted for patriotic reasons. [109] In the Treaty of Bucharest (1916) Romania was promised Transylvania and some other territories to the east of river Tisza, provided that she attacked Austria-Hungary from the south-east, where defences were weak. p. 222. Ansonsten wird der Vertrag von Trianon für uns alle etwas symbolisieren, das nicht gut ist. Tratatul de la Trianon a fost semnat la data de 4 iunie 1920 între Puterile Aliate învingătoare în Primul Război Mondial și Ungaria, în calitate de stat succesor al Imperiului Austro-Ungar, stat învins în Primul Război Mondial.Tratatul a fost semnat în Palatul Marele Trianon de la Versailles de către 16 state aliate (inclusiv România), pe de o parte, și de Ungaria, de altă parte. | Senza Autore | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Pastor, Peter. 4 giugno - Firma del trattato del Trianon tra l'Ungheria e gli Alleati. [20], The minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom were the major beneficiaries. "The Afterlife of the Treaty of Trianon.". 1920 Június 4. Although the countries that were the main beneficiaries of the treaty partially noted the issues, the Hungarian delegates tried to draw attention to them. This started by the First Vienna Award, then was continued with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1939 (annexation of the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia and a small strip from eastern Slovakia), afterwards by the Second Vienna Award in 1940, and finally by the annexations of territories after the breakup of Yugoslavia. Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 [17] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into the First World War. p.37. There are several reasons for this population decrease, some of which were spontaneous assimilation and certain state policies, like Slovakization, Romanianization, Serbianisation. This treaty was mainly designed by French and British representatives. "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." excluding Croatia-Slavonia. Czechoslovakia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs were proclaimed and troops started deserting, disobeying orders and retreating. After World War II approximately 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany, according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. Most Hungarians preferred to maintain the territorial integrity of the pre-war kingdom. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists seized power. The American war aim was end aggressive militarism as shown by Berlin and Vienna. The Hungarian self-disarmament made the occupation of Hungary directly possible for the relatively small armies of Romania, the Franco-Serbian army and the armed forces of the newly established Czechoslovakia. On 1 December 1919, the Hungarian delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference; however, the newly defined borders of Hungary were nearly concluded without the presence of the Hungarians. [citation needed]. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . Unemployment levels in Austria, as well as in Hungary, were dangerously high, and industrial output dropped by 65%. Hungary had good relationship with Germany, another economic powerhouse in Europe. Rispetto a quelli stabiliti diciotto mesi prima, i confini stavolta non comprendevano: In base al trattato del Trianon, le città di Pécs, Mohács, Baja e Szigetvár, che erano state occupate dalla Serbia nel novembre 1918, vennero restituite all'Ungheria. The communist government followed the Soviet model: the party established its terror groups (like the infamous Lenin Boys) to "overcome the obstacles" in the Hungarian countryside. Flood-light on Europe: a guide to the next war 443 The Allies were indifferent as to the exact line of the newly defined border between Austria and Hungary. in Joseph Held, ed., Miller, Vol. See/download bungalow rates Wooden bungalows Trianon Capacity 4 People. Il numero di ungheresi in queste province, basato sul censimento del 1910 era: La popolazione ungherese in tutte queste regioni diminuì dopo il trattato, anche se minoranze ungheresi risiedono ancora oggi nei paesi limitrofi. Bilingualism was also disappearing. In addition, the structure of its economy collapsed, because it had relied on other parts of the pre-war Kingdom. D'altra parte, la diversità etnica dell'Ungheria diminuì considerevolmente: il numero di persone di altra nazionalità entro le frontiere della nuova Ungheria dopo il trattato fu appena superiore al 10%. After a Hungarian-Czechoslovak cease-fire signed on 1 July 1919, the Hungarian Red Army left parts of Slovakia by 4 July, as the Entente powers promised to invite a Hungarian delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference. Alcuni articoli del trattato richiesero a tutte le parti contraenti di rispettare vari diritti delle minoranze nazionali presenti entro i suoi confini. While several demographers (David W. Paul,[80] Peter Hanak, László Katus[81]) state that the outcome of the census is reasonably accurate (assuming that it is also properly interpreted), others believe that the 1910 census was manipulated[82][83] by exaggerating the percentage of the speakers of Hungarian, pointing to the discrepancy between an improbably high growth of the Hungarian-speaking population and the decrease of percentual participation of speakers of other languages due to Magyarization in the kingdom in the late 19th century.[84]. Czechoslovakia took control of Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia. For all intents and purposes, the death knell of the Austro-Hungarian empire sounded on 14 October 1918, when United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing informed Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister István Burián that autonomy for the nationalities was no longer enough. Cfr. (2018), Rudolf Chmel, "Syndrom of Trianon in Hungarian Foreign Policy and Act on Hungarians Living in Neighboring Countries.". T. Faltus, Povojnova hospodarska kriza v rokoch 1912–1923 v Ceskoslovensku [Postwar Depression in Czechoslovakia] (Bratislava, 1966). Peter Hanák, "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." ", Balogh, Eva S. "Peaceful Revision: The Diplomatic Road to War. On 3 June, Romania was forced into further retreat but extended its line of defence along the Tisza River and reinforced its position with the 8th Division, which had been moving forward from Bukovina since 22 May. Hungarian troops prevailed and the Romanian Army retreated to its bridgehead at Tokaj. El Tractat del Trianon, signat el 4 de juny de 1920, és la conclusió de l'assemblea celebrada al palau del Grand Trianon del castell de Versalles , per tal d'establir l'status d'Hongria després de la seva derrota a la I Guerra Mundial. [77] The population of the autonomous Croatia-Slavonia was mostly composed of Croats and Serbs (who together counted 87% of population). 1930); K. Rotschild, Austria's Economic Development Between the Two Wars (London, 1946). Although the treaty addressed some nationality issues, it also sparked some new ones. The army of post-Trianon Hungary was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Dopo il 1918, l'Ungheria non ebbe più accesso al mare, che invece il Regno di Ungheria aveva avuto, attraverso i territori dell'odierna Croazia, per oltre 800 anni. [101] According to a study, two-thirds of Hungarians agreed in 2020 that parts of neighbouring countries should belong to them, the highest percentage of all NATO countries. In their eyes, that was for the damned in Hell." Guarda le traduzioni di ‘Trattato del Trianon’ in Bulgaro.